Lincolnshire Drawings
By David Vale MBE

An Appreciation

Compiled and edited by John R Ketteringham MBE, PhD

Published by John R Ketteringham 2004


First published in 2004 by John R Ketteringham, Web site:

Copyright: John R Ketteringham and Mary Vale.

All rights reserved. No part of this book, including the drawings, may be reproduced in any form without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

Original edition typeset by John R Ketteringham and bound by Peter Noon.





Books by John R Ketteringham MBE, PhD:


The Church That Moved (1983)
Lincoln Cathedral : A History of the Bells, Bell Ringers and bell ringing (First published 1987; Second Edition 2000)
A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch
Second Lincolnshire Hotchpotch (1990)
Lincolnshire People
James Arundel of Locksley Hall, North Somercotes (1995)
A Cathedral Miscellany (1997)
Lincolnshire Women (1998)

A Third Lincolnshire Hotchpotch (1999)
Lincolnshire Bells and Bellfounders (2000)
Participants in the Lincolnshire Rising of 1536 and some inscriptions on Lincolnshire
Church Bells as Sources for Genealogists
Lincolnshire Natives and Others (2002)
A Tribute to Jack Millhouse (2003)
A Tribute to Rodney B. Meadows (2003)
Lincolnshire's Greatest Beekeeper : An Appreciation of the life of Richard Watson Frow MBE (2003)


Lincolnshire Drawings

By David Vale MBE

An Appreciation

Compiled and edited by John R Ketteringham MBE, PhD


21 February 1926 - 12 May 2002


A Gentle Man among Men



The Witham Valley before the Dissolution of the Religious Houses

This drawing was produced by David for my PhD thesis and illustrates dramatically the way in which this now very sparsely populated area between Lincoln and Kirkstead would have appeared before the destruction of the religious houses.

David produced this cartoon strip history of Lincoln for A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch.


By Mrs Mary Vale

It gives me pleasure to commend this volume to the reader, revealing as it does a range and type of David's drawings not seen in other books. In particular I am delighted to see so many examples of Lincolnshire's old churches, for which David had a great love, visiting them often to spend time in quiet contemplation, just as he did Lincoln Cathedral.

John Ketteringham's warm and lively style makes this Tribute a welcome addition to existing publications.



By Edward C P Wilkinson

Chairman of Management, Lincoln Civic Trust

When John Ketteringham advised me that he was intending to publish all the drawings which David had produced to illustrate his various books I was very pleased, because so much of David's work has been seen only by readers of books by John and others. I was also pleased to be invited to contribute a Foreword.

David's drawings of Lincolnshire buildings and scenes, as the reader will see, are very detailed and he must have spent many hours at each site but this was obviously a joy to him. His use of perspective enabled him to show some buildings from unusual angles, permitting him to include items of interest visible from the site. Along with heritage buildings, another of his particular interests was in the railways of the county as is clearly evident in some of his drawings. His whimsical sense of humour is apparent when closely examining some of the drawings. But it was David's perception and his painstaking research coupled with his vivid imagination that enabled him to produce his many drawings, especially of Roman Lincoln and to bring back to life buildings and scenes long gone. A remarkable talent indeed.

David kept few of his drawings for himself so we are indebted to those fortunate enough to own them when they make them available, with the permission of Mary, David's widow, to a wider public through books such as this.

I know I speak for all members of the Lincoln Civic Trust when I say how sadly David is missed and so too are his drawings and illustrations. He was a member of the Trust for almost forty years, serving on the Council of Management as well as most of the sub-committees. His willingness to help overcome problems and offer advice on his, and our, favourite subject - the history, illustration and preservation of the City's and County's heritage, buildings and sites, was so much appreciated.




I first met David when he was Close House architect.  He agreed to produce several drawings for my early books and we became friends.  The first archaeological reconstruction he did for me was to produce a magnificent Norman bell tower from the evidence of the remains of a substantial wall in the Nettle Yard of Lincoln Cathedral.  This was published in Lincolnshire History and Archaeology Volume 25 1990.


He produced a fine series of five drawings of Lincoln Cathedral at various stages in its history for the second edition of Lincoln Cathedral : A History of the Bells, Bell Ringers and bell ringing (see pages 23, 24 and 25). In 2000 he produced 66 drawings of Lincolnshire churches for my book Lincolnshire Bells and Bell Founders. These drawings will eventually be deposited in Lincoln Cathedral Library.

I would like to think that this publication reflects David's many interests. I have included all 84 drawings by him in my possession and hope this demonstrates his versatility and passion for detail. 

When David gave me the church drawings he said 'Look carefully you will find some surprises'.  I urge the reader to do this!

John R Ketteringham

David Vale

by John Wilford, FSA

Chairman, Friends of Lincoln Archaeological Research and Education (FLARE),

Few people have contributed more to the study of Lincolnshire's architectural history and archaeology than David Vale.

A very modest and gentle man, he was typically surprised but quietly, I think, proud to find himself honoured with the MBE for his services not only to the heritage of Lincoln and the wider county but also to England.  He was looking forward to the investiture when he died.

Born in Ilford, Essex, he always claimed that as a boy he had two passions, George Stephenson and railways and Christopher Wren and architecture.  When it came to choosing a career, Wren won and David studied architecture at Walthamstow. His later drawing of the Honywood Library; designed by his hero Wren and erected in 1674 over the cloisters of Lincoln Cathedral, must have been very special to him.

He came to Lincoln in 1949 to work for the city council and immediately fell in love with the city.  His work designing and converting buildings for new use was done with sensitivity and he was soon found ready to offer his services free of charge to any good or charitable cause.  For example he was the architect for the first St Barnabas Hospice on Lindum Terrace and designed the logo still in use.  But perhaps his most outstanding work, and a lasting memorial, is the Lincoln Crematorium completed in 1969.  He was justly proud of the beautifully landscaped project, especially the chapel with its saucer dome and rusticated tower which was acknowledged in Pevsner's Lincolnshire.

In the late 1960s David turned his hand to imagining, visualising and drawing parts of Lincoln as they may have once appeared.  One of his more ambitious projects in 1972 was a reconstruction of Bardney Abbey as it may have been just before the Dissolution.   It was the fruit of meticulous research. Working from archaeological reports and drawings, the lie of the
land, surviving stone fragments and his unrivalled knowledge of medieval architecture, his reconstruction brought the Abbey back into existence.  He transformed rubble of foundations, remains of walls and humps and bumps in a field into majestic buildings with all the clarity of a photograph.

He retired from local government in 1976 to become the Close Houses Architect for the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral. It was during this period that a close partnership with Lincoln's archaeologists developed. He could breathe life into their work and make it accessible.  He took their reports and records and turned them into a series of brilliant reconstructions.  These ranged from Lincoln as it would have appeared in the Iron Age, the Roman period, the Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Medieval and Industrial periods and right through to the coming of the railways.

In 1977 he became a founder member of FLARE, formed primarily to bring the results of archaeological work to the notice of the general public and, above all, into schools.  Through FLARE and the Lincoln Civic Trust, of which he was also an enthusiastic member, his work was becoming ever more known and appreciated.

But he also looked beyond Lincoln and had other special interests.  His love of railways endured, as did that of poetry, music, the countryside and landscapes.  He loved T. S. Eliot and the little "monastery" at Little Gidding.  He often quoted Eliot's definition of history as a "pattern of timeless moments".  And he was always fascinated by the monastic life.  There was something of the contemplative in him.  He was a deeply spiritual person, a man of prayer who benefited from looking deeply at the monastic life and enjoying retreats in places such as Mount St Bernard Abbey. His early drawing of Bardney Abbey was soon followed by reconstruction of other major abbeys and priories such as those at Louth Park, Barlings and Sempringham.

Among his more recent reconstructions were Lincoln's Franciscan and Carmelite priories.  As always he worked closely with Lincoln's archaeologists eager to pick over the latest evidence, to be as accurate as possible, and to incorporate any new discoveries into his drawings.  His preferred tool was the pencil, simply because it gave more scope for trial and error and could easily be rubbed out and changed as new evidence came to light.

At the time of his death David was looking forward to the June celebrations of the 800th anniversary of the canonisation of St Gilbert of Sempringham.  Perhaps his last drawing was of St Gilbert for a logo to be used to publicise the event.  He was also considering the evidence for St Catherine's Priory in Lincoln, which may have been his next reconstruction project.

He shared a long and happy life with his wife Phyllis whom he married in the Church of St Peter in Eastgate in 1951.  He was widowed in 2001 and family and friends were delighted when he married his second wife Mary who had been a close family friend for more than 22 years.

The funeral service, attended by representatives of many groups, churches, colleagues and friends, was conducted by Canon John Bayley in St Peter-in-Eastgate Church, Lincoln.

He will be greatly missed, but his drawings and reconstructions will continue to edify and delight and carry his name to countless future generations.


Transport circa 1850

From 1816 horse drawn packet boats were gradually replaced by steamboats, which continued to be used for some years after rail transport was introduced. This drawing shows both forms of transport near Dogdyke pumping station.

This drawing was produced by David for A Second Lincolnshire Hotchpotch and, as with so many of his drawings, a close study reveals much unexpected detail.

Lincoln Cathedral and Saint Giles' Hospital circa 1500

David produced this drawing for the cover of A Cathedral Miscellany which I produced to mark the Diamond Jubilee of the Association of the Friends of Lincoln Cathedral in 1997.


St Wilfrid's Church, Alford

St Wilfrid's church dates mainly from the fourteenth century but it was restored and partly rebuilt in 1869 when the tower was heightened and an outer north aisle added. The south porch has an upper room, which is said to have been used as the Grammar School at one time.

Two Churches in one Churchyard

St Adelwold, Alvingham and St Mary, North Cockerington

The villages of Alvingham and North Cockerington are separated by the River Lud but the two churches stand in one churchyard. The reason for this goes back to the twelfth century when a Gilbertine priory was founded at Alvingham. The church of St Mary was the priory chapel and was given to the village of North Cockerington because their own church was derelict and ruined. The church of St Adelwold has always belonged to Alvingham No other church in England is dedicated to the Saxon Saint Adelwold who was Bishop of Lindisfarne.


St Andrew's Church, Apley

This church was built as a mortuary chapel in 1871 of red brick. It is said to be the smallest church in the diocese which is in active use. Examine this drawing very carefully - there is one of David's hidden surprises!

St Andrew's Church, Ashby Puerorum

The second part of the village name refers to the fact that the income from land here was assigned for the support of the choirboys of Lincoln Cathedral. The Latin puer refers to a boy or child. One of the bells here dates from 1150 and is the oldest in Lincolnshire.


St Helen's Church, Aswardby

This church was built in 1747 with a Victorian bell turret. Presumably this was added when the chancel was rebuilt in 1840.

St Peter's Church, Barton on Humber

St Peter's has a seventy-foot high Saxon tower containing a ring of eight bells. Most of the tower was built in the tenth century and the top stages added in the eleventh century. Nearby is the church of St Mary, also with a fine ring of eight bells. Most of St Mary's was built in the thirteenth century.


St Andrew's Church, Beelsby

This church was largely rebuilt in the nineteenth century and has a little spire on top of its bell cote. There is an arch of a tower which disappeared long ago. The church is on a hill above the village accessible only by footpath from the main road. It has a panoramic view of the Humber estuary which David has reproduced in this fine drawing. The mouth of the Humber can be seen and Grimsby Dock Tower, Spurn Head lighthouse and on the horizon to the left the spire of Pocklington church in East Yorkshire.


St Andrew's Church, Beesby


Much of this thirteenth century church was rebuilt in 1841 but the chancel is thirteenth century with two large corbel heads one with opening his mouth with and hand whilst supporting the corbel with the other hand. The other head is gnashing his teeth!


Holy Trinity Church, Bilsby

The nave of this eighteenth century church is constructed of greenstone but has been partly rendered. The tower is also of greenstone but the top is of brick and is topped with an eighteenth century weathercock. The chancel and north arcade are medieval. Much of the building was restored in 1844.

Editors note : It is at this church that I learned to play the organ!

St Helen's Church, Biscathorpe

This is a mid-Victorian church and the tower has an unusual wide, open octagonal bell stage below the spire. There is extensive evidence around the church of the medieval village.

Brocklesby Park Stable Block

The stable block at Brocklesby House was built circa 1720. The clock installed circa 1722 was John Harrison's first major commission with the original bell apparently being supplied by Daniel Hedderly of Lincoln. John Harrison was, of course, to become well known for his work on longitude and the marine chronometer. The present clock bell was cast by James Harrison II in about 1820.

Bardney Abbey

David did this reconstruction drawing of Bardney Abbey, as it would have been circa 642, to illustrate the following item, which appeared in A Second Lincolnshire Hotchpotch.

Oswald, King of Northumbria was killed in 642 during the battle of Maserfelth (Oswestry), and was a popular hero who appears to have well deserved veneration as a saint. The King's body was brought to Bardney by his niece Queen Osryth but the monks refused to admit the bier, which was left outside the Abbey all night.

During the night a bright light shone from the bier, and was seen from a great distance. The monks realised their mistake in refusing admittance, and the Abbot gave instructions that thereafter no traveller should be refused entry and all locks should be removed.

So if anyone is asked if they come from Bardney, it is meant as a gentle reminder that they have left a door open!

St Botolph's Church, Boston

Boston 'Stump' was built during the town's time of great prosperity in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The town had grown rich through trade with Flanders and the fine church housed the chapels of the various guilds. Tower is built in the style of those at Antwerp and Bruges. The original carillon was cast in Holland.


St John Baptist Church, Burringham

This church is now redundant. It was built 1856-7 by S. S. Teulon and the design was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1857. The western tower is as broad as the nave and has a steep pyramid roof.

St Benedict's Church, Candlesby

At the time of the Domesday survey there were two churches here. The site of one is unknown and the other was reconsecrated after rebuilding in 1838. Although very small the tower contains a ring of five bells.


St Nicholas Church, Carlton Scroop

Carlton village is on the cliff ridge and the church is a small grey building screened by tall trees. It has a Norman nave with most of the remainder of the church being built in the thirteenth century. The aisles and top part of the tower are fourteenth century.

Chapel St Leonards

The name of this village derives from the fact that there was originally a chapel of Mumby dedicated to St Leonard here. The chapel was rebuilt in 1572 after a flood and it was again rebuilt in 1794 on a much smaller scale. There was further rebuilding in 1866 and in 1901 the church was lengthened and the tower built. The red tiled tower is unique in Lincolnshire. In 1924 the chancel was enlarged and lengthened with a new east window and reredos.


St Michael's Church, Coningsby

The tall massive western tower of this church is visible whichever way one approaches it. The ground floor of the tower is open to north and south forming a processional way and houses the famous one-handed clock face believed to be the largest of its kind in Europe.

St Peter's Church, Conisholme

Conisholme is two or three miles from the sea and the thirteenth century church was originally much larger. It appears that the present chancel is formed from a former central tower. There is a brass in the floor with the portraits of John Langholme, his wife and fourteen children which dates from 1515.


Royal Air Force College, Cranwell

The College Hall was built in 1934 and is surmounted by a pediment and tower which contains six bells which chime the hours, 'Westminster' quarters and the 'Retreat' at the daily lowering of the Royal Air Force Ensign.

St Andrew's Church, Cranwell

This is a small church with chancel higher than the nave. On the west gable of the nave is a most unusual bell cote. The bell wheel is placed vertically in a west/east direction and the bell cote itself curves up and ends in a semicircle.


Crowland Abbey

Crowland Abbey is believed to have been founded in 716 to commemorate the place on an island in the fen where St Guthlac lived. The present church is part of that built by Abbott Henry and partly remodelled by Abbot Radulphus in the thirteenth century. Space does not permit a full account of the abbey but this can easily be found elsewhere. Suffice it to say that the Abbey and the village itself is well worth a visit.

Lincoln circa 1307

When I was researching the Chapter Acts of Lincoln Cathedral I came across the record of an incident involving one of the Lay Vicars which I included in my book A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch. I had shown the manuscript to David and he produced the above drawing showing Lincoln as it was in about 1307. As with so many of David's drawings this one should be studied closely and many unexpected details will emerge.

I have reproduced the story below.

The Gambling Vicar

On 9 October 1307 it was reported to the Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral that Robert Coty a vicar-choral was:

"a public and notorious dicer...and that he was wont to play with public dicers...not only in the cities of London and Lincoln but also in the fairs of St Yves [St Ives] and St Botulph [Boston]...Several times [he had] lost all his clothes and other goods St Yves he lost ...a which he had [borrowed] from his kinsman...Having lost...all his clothes dressed [only] in his shirt he ran through the street of Wycford, Lincs by night [with] the dogs following...with great noise and...was arrested by the watchman".

Although he had promised the Chapter on oath not to gamble he again played at dice in Lincoln and York. Again he lost all his clothes and what was worse his choir habit. The loss of his habit was seen as bringing the Church into disrepute and, therefore, a serious crime so poor Robert had to resign.

Wycford at this time, almost 700 years ago, was a village outside the city walls and is now the parish of St Mary-le-Wigford, Lincoln.

St Andrew's Church, Epworth

Epworth, the capital of the Isle of Axholme, is well known as the home of the founder of Wesleyism. In 1696 Samuel Wesley came to the market town as rector and here most of his 19 children were born. John Wesley, the fifteenth child, was born here in 1703 and his brother Charles four years later. John became curate to his father. Samuel is buried in the churchyard and it was from his tomb that John preached after he had been banned from the church.


St Andrew's Church, Firsby

This church was built in 1857 to replace an Early English building with a thatched roof, which had fallen into disrepair.

High Bridge, Lincoln

David produced this reconstruction drawing of the Chapel of St Thomas Becket on the High Bridge, Lincoln as it might have appeared in the thirteenth century for the following article, which appeared in A Third Lincolnshire Hotchpotch.

I expect most visitors to Lincoln will have seen the half-timbered building on the west side of the High Bridge. I wonder how many realise that the east side had a building on it also. The Chapel of St Thomas the Martyr, which was built in the thirteenth century, stood on the bridge for many centuries until in 1549 it was converted into a house. It later became the hall of the Tanner's and Butcher's Company and it was finally taken down in 1762.

An obelisk was erected on the site in 1762 over a conduit, which also supplied drinking water to the conduit at St Mary-le-Wigford church, which still stands. The obelisk was demolished in 1939 because of its weight, which was thought to be too much for the bridge. What remains of the original obelisk together with new material has been erected at St Marks, Lincoln close to the old railway station.


St Clement's Church, Fiskerton

The casual observer will not realise that he is looking at the only round tower in Lincolnshire. Later Perpendicular work was carried out around the original tower. There appears to have been extensive use of material brought in from elsewhere and reused - possibly from Tupholme and Bardney.

St Mary Magdalene Church, Fleet

Fleet now lies some eight miles from the Wash but its name is a reminder that it once stood near a creek. The church is mostly fourteenth century but much restored by the Victorians. It is said to have been built by the monks of Castle Acre and is famous for its detached tower and spire.


St Leonard's Church, Fulstow

This church was originally built in the Early English style between 1160 and 1180. The font is also Early English and in the porch there are early fourteenth century effigies of Sir Robert de Hilton and his lady.

Alpha and Omega

This drawing, which shows the first train to enter Lincoln in 1846, is by David as is the border to The Spiritual Railway opposite.


The railway first reached Lincoln in 1846 with the first engine arriving on Friday 30 May. So anxious was the Railway Company to gather in revenue that a passenger service was introduced before the stations were built. There were complaints that it cost 5s 6d (271/2p) to travel to Nottingham! However it was possible by travelling on the "penny a mile" trains which ran at certain times to make the return journey for the same fare.

The Lincolnshire Chronicle and Northampton, Rutland and Nottingham Advertiser for 7 August 1846 reported at great length the official opening of St. Mark's Station, which took place on Monday 3 August even though the station had not been completed. The day was a general holiday in Lincoln with most of the shops being closed, all the Church bells were rung and there were flags everywhere: Unfortunately there was a tragic accident, which spoilt the day. The Stamford Mercury on 7 August reported this as follows:

"A couple of small cannons during the day were fired at intervals in the station grounds. Towards evening one of these burst and a poor man named Paul Harding being struck by a piece of the metal was so injured that the amputation of one of his legs has since been found necessary: a boy was struck upon the hand by another piece and had to suffer the loss of two fingers."

At a dinner that evening the Chairman of the Railway Company said a pension would be paid to Mr Harding for life but the unfortunate man died soon afterwards. I wonder if Dickens had this incident in mind when writing Great Expectations in which Wemmick fired a cannon "at nine o'clock each night, Greenwich time."

The close proximity of the two level crossings serving St. Mark's and the Central Station was a cause of irritation to travellers through Lincoln for many years and it was a relief to many when St. Mark's Station closed in 1985. As a farewell to St. Mark's Station, Dr Philip Marshall, who was then organist at the Cathedral, set to music the inscription, which appears on a memorial in Ely Cathedral to two railwaymen who were killed in an accident in 1845. He added an introduction and ending and the Cathedral Choir sang this on the platform of the refurbished Central Station on 13 May 1985.

The Spiritual Railway

Lincoln Cathedral

These drawings show the cathedral as it developed and were produced by David for the second edition of my book - Lincoln Cathedral : A History of the bells, Bell Ringers and bell ringing.

The Cathedral as it was at its consecration in 1092

A view of the Cathedral showing the bell tower circa 1120


A fire in 1141 destroyed much of the Cathedral and this drawing shows it after restoration by Bishop Alexander circa 1160




An earthquake in 1185 virtually destroyed the Cathedral and whilst it was being rebuilt the central tower collapsed. This drawing shows how it would have appeared circa 1250.



The Cathedral in 1280 after restoration and the completion of the Angel Choir.


St George's Church, Goltho

All that remains of the deserted village of Goltho is the church, which has been in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust for many years. The chancel dates from the eighteenth century and most of the fittings are contemporary


All Saints' Church Goulceby

There was a Saxon or Norman church here but the present building dates from 1908.

The Catholic Church of St Mary, Grantham


The façade of the church built in 1832 survives but the remainder was extended and re-ordered in 1966.


St Wulfram's Church, Grantham


Grantham's crowning glory is the tower and spire of St Wulfram's church. The spire is slightly lower than that of St James', Louth and the tower of St Botolph's, Boston but the surroundings make it seem higher. The tower contains a splendid ring of ten bells.

All Saints Church, Great Steeping

This church, which is now redundant, was built in 1748 on ancient foundations.

St Andrew's Church, Grimsby


This church was consecrated on 29 September 1870 and demolished in 1962. It had a ring of eight bells, which were scrapped despite an undertaking to hang them in the new church.

Stay in the train then!

This drawing of Lincoln Central Station as it would have appeared on 27 August 1851 was produced by David to illustrate the following story :

On 27 August 1851 Queen Victoria and Prince Albert with some of the royal children travelled by train to Scotland. At that time the line to the north passed through Boston, Spalding and Lincoln and then on to Doncaster. The royal train stopped at Lincoln where Lord John Russell stepped on to the platform and introduced the Mayor to the Queen who remained on the train. According to the Lincolnshire Chronicle of 29 August 1851 the Mayor knelt on one knee and presented the keys of the city and an address to Her Majesty. After the Queen had replied the Mayor presented some grapes grown by Richard Ellison of Sudbrooke Holme!

Despite the very short stop the City was decorated as if a full-blown Royal Visit was taking place. Flags and bunting appeared everywhere even on the top of the central tower of the Cathedral. A short stop had been made at Boston and crowds gathered at all the stations on the route. The Chronicle reported that at Spalding the pilot engine "passed through at the very fast rate of 50 miles an hour" followed closely by the Royal Train. The Chronicle continued "The Mercury correspondent had the impudence to write to the authorities for leave to be admitted on the platform to enable him to take a report! A report of what? - a crowd of gazers!" Needless to say the Chronicle and Stamford Mercury were bitter rivals for news in those days!

It has often been said that the Queen did not make a tour of Lincoln at this time because of her dislike of Colonel Charles Waldo Sibthorpe who was one of the Members of Parliament for Lincoln. In December 1839 the Colonel a Tory, had proposed a successful motion to Parliament to reduce Prince Albert's annuity from £50,000 to £30.000. On 1 January 1840 the Queen wrote in her Journal "From the Tories good Lord deliver us".

Sibthorpe had also led a party which was bitterly opposed to the Great Exhibition and had called down curses from Heaven including hail to destroy the glass roof of Paxton's great "greenhouse". The exhibition, which was the inspiration of Prince Albert, had opened in May of 1851 so it was not surprising that this incident should be fresh in the Queen's mind only some three months later.

St Marks Church, Grimsby


This church was built in 1960 on the outskirts of Grimsby to serve the growing housing estates on both sides of Laceby Road. It was dedicated to St Mark because he was the nephew of Barnabas and the parish church of St Barnabas in the centre of Grimsby had closed some years earlier. The new parish inherited some of the fabric and furniture of the old. The church has a freestanding tower.


Minster Church of St James, Grimsby


The first mention of the church of St James in Grimsby is in a document dated 1114. There were then two churches in Grimsby the other being St Mary's which was later demolished and its stone used to rebuild St James. In 1856 the church was restored and it suffered extensive damage by enemy action on 14 July 1940. It was again restored and hallowed on 3 December 1952. There is a ring of ten bells in the tower.

The church was granted minster status on Sunday 16 May 2010.

The Stable Block, Gunby Hall


The stable block at Gunby Hall was built in 1700 and the clock tower added in 1917. This was to house the clock and bell which were transferred from Hook Place, Southampton. The clock is dated 1788 and the bell 1878 but it may not be the original clock bell.


St Andrew's Church, Hannah


This small chapel was consecrated in 1753 and it is built on high ground commanding attention. The west doorway is medieval and has been re-used. Inside there are box pews and a cast iron relief of the Last Supper.

Ingham School


This school was built in 1877/9 and the interesting feature is its very ornate cast iron bell turret with lead spire.


The Church of St Peter and Paul, Langton-by-Partney


The tiny village of Langton lies in a quiet secluded spot just at the foot of the Wolds. The present church was erected in 1725. All that remains of an earlier church is the font and two monuments to members of the Langton family who died in the early sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The church is built in the Classical Georgian style and has a similar plan to that of several Oxford and Cambridge colleges with the seats facing inwards. Sir John Betjeman described Langton as 'one of the most attractive and interesting churches in Lincolnshire and therefore England because he says 'Lincolnshire is rich in remarkable churches'. It is a surprise to find a ring of six bells here.

St Edith's Church, Little Grimsby

This is a very simple neat little church in an oasis of tranquillity being enclosed within the grounds of the Hall. There is the date 1500 in a quatrefoil carved stone and the initials P(?)EDJJH in the outside wall over the door at the west end.


St James' Church, Louth

David once told me that he was particularly fond of St James' church and he produced the drawing on the left for my PhD thesis to show Louth, as it would have appeared soon after the completion of the spire in 1515. The second drawing was for Lincolnshire Bells and Bellfounders. The tower contains a heavy ring of eight bells

St Swithin's Church Lincoln

The following three drawings illustrate the four churches known to have existed on the site close by Greyfriars. David produced these for me to illustrate an entry in Lincolnshire Bells and Bellfounders.

Lincoln St Swithin's in 1718
Church formed from partially restored ruins of the medieval building

Lincoln St Swithun's as it was from 1801 until 1884

The present church of St Swithin built in 1884.


St Peter's Church, Lusby


Lusby is a small hamlet and the church is an ancient building with many Anglo-Saxon features. It is one of the oldest in the Diocese.

St Mary's Church, Mablethorpe circa 1900


This church dates back to the thirteenth century with the font, tower and pillars being part of the original church. After the drought of 1976 much cracking appeared and much of the church had to be rebuilt. The first church of this parish is now under the sea and legend has it that the bell will be heard to ring when another flood is due!


All Saints Church, Mareham on the Hill

This church was consecrated circa 1153 and overlooks Mareham village. The interior walls are white and the box pews are also painted. One of the rectors was Simon Inslip who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1349 until 1366.

The Swineherd of Stow

The above drawing of the Swineherd was produced by David to illustrate the following story which was first published in A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch. Stow church can be seen in the background.

The Swineherd of Stow

On the north pinnacle of the west front of Lincoln Cathedral is the figure of a man blowing a horn which is known as the Swineherd of Stow. He is said to have given a peck of silver pennies for the building of the Cathedral and in modern versions of the story he is given the name of Hugh. His gift is said to have been given to St Hugh whose figure appears on the South pinnacle, so that the two Hughs of very different status stand at each end of the west front.

Sir Charles Anderson says that the swineherd's horn is believed to be heard in stormy weather but as the horn is solid the sounds are "probably the wailing of the wind in the belfries above".

The existing figure dates from 1850 when the original was taken down and stored in the cloisters.

It has been suggested that the figure really represents Bishop Bloet the second bishop of Lincoln who consecrated the first cathedral and was said to be "a most profligate indolent and licentious man". Knyghton speculates that this circumstance was "perhaps the cause of his being traditionally called the Swineherd of Stow. It is said of him that when bishop he gave a peck of silver pennies towards completing the building of the Cathedral.

Revd Mark Spurrell believes that the earliest reference to the figure as the Swineherd of Stow is contained in Charles Wild's illustrated book on the Architecture and Sculpture of the Cathedral which was published in 1819. Wild refers to the statue as "a grotesque figure blowing a horn (which) is called the 'Swineherd of Stow' but from what cause is unknown". Mr Spurrell points out that in medieval art swineherds carry a stick and not a horn and illustrate the month of November. The huntsman who illustrates December has the horn and is usually shown hunting boars.

Dr Nicholas Bennett the Cathedral Vice-Chancellor and Librarian adds the following note :

The name 'Swineherd of Stow' was in use two hundred years before the publication of Wild's book. The fabric accounts of the Dean and Chapter for the year 1619 include the payment of 12 pence to John Peachye for 'pulling weedes of the gutter next the Swineherd of Stowe (LAO D&C Bj 1.7). Further research may well uncover earlier references to the name.

St Michael's Church, Martin


This ancient forgotten church stands in the yard of Hall Farm. It has a Norman doorway and a narrow chancel arch almost three feet thick.


St James' Church, Moulton Chapel


Left : Before 1886 - Right : The present church.

This church was originally built as a brick octagon in 1722 and the chancel was added in 1886. It is believed that the Dutch fen drainers influenced the style of the building.

The Church of the Holy Trinity and St Mary, Old Clee

This church was dedicated by St Hugh on 5 March 1192 and served the farming village of Clee and the fishing hamlet of Clee Thorpes. There was much restoration in 1878 and again in 1937.


St Jude's Church, New Leake

This is a late Victorian oblong brick building.

Lincoln Cathedral circa 1720

David produced this drawing to illustrate a snippet, which I included in A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch. It had caught my eye whilst examining the Wilson papers copies of which are in the Lincolnshire Archives. Apparently E. J. Wilson, the architect, had been talking to Lincoln residents and one John Bocock told him that he remembered the Galilee porch at Lincoln Cathedral being walled up and used for casting lead and that there was a glaziers workshop above. The casting room was entered by means of double doors from the west end of the Galilee Porch.

Wilson also records an interview with John Durance who died in 1805 in his nineties. Durance told him that he was a servant boy on a farm in Monks Lane, Lincoln and he remembered the violent reaction of the people in 1727 to the proposal to take down the spires on the Western towers of the Cathedral. He said the Close Gates were shut and barricaded to keep out the mob but they forced the Postern on Greestone stairs. His father was one of the leaders of the mob who formed a circle around Prebendary Connington and made him dance whilst they sang "high Church or low jump again Connington". They also shut some of the workmen in the Cathedral for three days.

Durance remembered his father being brought home from a fight by the Close gates wounded and bleeding.

All Saints Church, Oxcombe


This small church is set in a remote valley of the Lincolnshire Wolds. The present church with its octagonal tower was built in 1842 incorporating some items from earlier times. The bell must have been from an earlier church as it is dated 1637 and the font is fifteenth century.


St James Church, Rigsby


The original building was taken down and the present church erected in 1863. The west rose window is filled with brilliant stained glass. There is bell cote and spirelet above. Inside the church there is a sword and helmet which were discovered in a tomb in the churchyard. They are believed to be Roman.

St Olave's Church, Ruckland


This is one of the county's smallest churches. The first church was erected on this site in the mid eleventh century and there are strong Scandinavian associations as shown by the dedication to St Olave a Norwegian of royal blood. The present building was erected in 1885.


St Helen's Church, Saxby


This church was rebuilt in 1775 of red brick with stone dressings. It was restored in 1869 when the chancel was painted and gilded.

St Andrew's Church, Scredington


This church with its slender spire was rebuilt in the nineteenth century but it still has its thirteenth century doorway, a fourteenth century arcade and two fifteenth century monuments.


The Church of St John the Divine, Southrey


This church, of Scandinavian design, was built of wood by the local carpenter and stands on a concrete plinth incorporating stones from Bardney Abbey. It has a turret containing a bell from Gautby Old Hall.

Medieval Table Manners

Robert Grosseteste became Bishop of Lincoln in 1235 and published a number of learned theological works but he was also interested in the manners and morals of his time. The following poem, which has been translated from the Latin by Charles Garton, is ascribed to the Bishop and was intended to be an aid to teaching boys table manners. This was first published in A Lincolnshire Hotchpotch and David produced the above drawing to illustrate it.


"Here's what every boy should know who at the master's table stands:
While you're speaking keep your feet still and your fingers and your hands,
cultivate a frank demeanour, gape not all around the scene,
do not scrutinize the wall and don't on post or pillar lean.
Do not poke your nose or tempted be to scratch a tickly place,
do not loll your head, express your feelings with your eyes or face.
Walk sedately now and when you're on your way through street and square;
switch not your complexion to a frivolous or saucy air.
No guffaw, no horse-laugh in the master's presence: this is the plan
you must follow if ambitious to be thought a gentleman.
Always wash your hands before you touch food or begin to dine,
keep whatever seat your host or master may to you assign,
do not take the highest seat unless called to the table's head,
and while waiting for the courses do not gollop wine and bread -
you'll be called a starveling or a gormandizer if you do;
and in order not to shock your neighbour, keep your nails clean, too.
Either eat up totally or to the poor resign your share,
moderate your tone and manner, of garrulity beware.
Once again, to be respected, don't give vent to loud guffaws,
do not take excessive mouthfuls nor to bursting cram your jaws.
There's another thing to mention - don't hold food in either cheek,
and when you have got your mouth full don't attempt to laugh or speak;
from your bowl in silence sup and do not loudly slurp or dredge,
neither leave your spoon stuck in the dish nor leaning on its edge.
Wipe your mouth before you drink to make it clean of crumb or stain,
once a course is cleared away forbear to call it back again;
never spit across the table, nor beside the table spit,
if your neck or nose should itch let no one see you scratching it.
Never wipe your nose with fingers, let your hands be always clean,
likewise never picking teeth with knife point let yourself be seen;
if your mouth has food inside it add not drink on top of such;
nothing to your friends offensive should you while at table touch -
do not pat the dog and do not stroke the mouse-waylaying cat;
let your knife not stain the table-cloth while table you are at;
do not blow upon your food or drink to cool it if it's hot;
salt put on your trencher side, promiscuously shower it not;
if you spit while washing, wisest is to spit outside the bowl.
Grace, time, reverence hallow meals while godly reading feeds the soul.
Brief of speech and blithe of look be, with the poor your plenty share;
luxury and all distraction, drunkenness and brawling spare.
When the meal is finished let your thanks unto the Lord be given.
Anyone who spurns these lessons, let him from the board be driven."

Some of the copies of the poem which still exist have the following tag


"He who taught me these instructions, Grossum-caput* this is he;
Grossum-caput was a bishop, God to him propitious be"

*Grossum-caput = big head = Grosseteste

The Church of St Mary and St Nicholas, Spalding.


This church dates from the late thirteenth century. The tower is believed to have originally been detached and it has battlements, pinnacles and a crocketed spire rising to a total height of 160 feet.


St Andrew's Church, Stainfield


There is a tradition at Stainfield that Sir Christopher Wren had a part in the design of this church. He was a friend of the Tyrwhits who were the squires of Stainfield. The back wall is all that survives of Stainfield Priory and around the church are old earthworks relating to the old village demolished to make way for the Priory and Hall.

St Laurence's Church, Surfleet


This church is famous for its leaning Decorated western tower with recessed spire. The tower contains a ring of twelve bells, two of which were given by bell ringers nationwide as a tribute to the Revd Henry Law James, founder of the Lincoln Diocesan Guild of Church Bell Ringers.


Lincoln circa 1530

This is rather a nice view of Lincoln in the sixteenth century which David produced for me to help illustrate my PhD thesis.

St Clement's Church, Sutton-on-Sea


The present church, which was consecrated in 1818, is on the site of an older church and has rather a strange appearance with its most striking feature being its leaning tower.


St Mary's Church, Thoresway


This village lies in a valley in the Wolds with high hills surrounding it. The church was almost entirely rebuilt in the nineteenth century but it still has a Norman arch at the west end and the north doorway is also Norman.

Timberland School

The Old School was built in 1843 with a gabled bell cote.


All Saints Church, Ulceby



This brick church was built in 1826 and stands on a hill. It has a most unusual narrow bell cote and replaced a building with a thatched roof, erected in 1749, which was destroyed by fire. Parts of an Early English pier, which were dug up in the churchyard, have been placed each side of the porch.

All Saints Church, Wainfleet


The present church was built in 1821 to replace a medieval building in the old town. The new church is of brick but incorporating some features from the old. The bell turret was added in 1932 to house a chime of eight bells.


St Martin's Church, Waithe


Waithe is a very small hamlet with a population of about twenty people. The church was rebuilt in the 1860s by the Haigh family. It incorporates the eleventh century tower of the old building and the new church is built around it. Sir John Betjeman described the interior of this church as resembling a Victorian public convenience because of the encaustic Minton tiles used to decorate the chancel.

St Margaret's Church, Well


This church stands on a hill overlooking Well Hall and towards the sea. It was rebuilt in 1733 in the Palladian style reminiscent of St Paul's Covent Garden London. The bellcote was built in 1970 to replace a Victorian one and contains a bell dating from the fourteenth century.


All Saints Church, Wilksby

This remote very small church was built in 1790 and the chancel was added in 1802.


David shared with me a great affection for 'the forgotten county'. He illustrated this poem, which I used on the last page of A Second Lincolnshire Hotchpotch and I am sure he would agree that it makes a fitting conclusion to this tribute to him.

Index of the Drawings

ALFORD, St Wilfrid 10
APLEY, St Andrew 11
ASWARDBY, St Helen's 12
BARDNEY, Abbey 16
BARTON ON HUMBER, St Peter'S as it was in late eleventh century 13
BEELSBY, St Andrew 13
BEESBY, St Andrew 14
BILSBY, Holy Trinity 14
BOSTON, St Botolph 17
BROCKLESBY PARK, Stable Block 15
BURRINGHAM, St John Baptist 17
CANDLESBY, St Benedict 18
CARLTON SCROOP, St Nicholas 18
CONINGSBY, St Michael 19
CRANWELL, Royal Air Force College 20
CRANWELL, St Andrew 21
EPWORTH, St Andrew 23
FIRSBY, St Andrew 23
FISKERTON, St Clement 24
FLEET, St Mary Magdalene 25
FULSTOW, St Laurence 25
GOLTHO, St George 30
GOULCEBY, All Saints 30
GRANTHAM, Catholic Church of St Mary 31
GRANTHAM, St Wulfram 31
GRIMSBY, St Andrew 32
GRIMSBY, Minster Church of St James 34
GRIMSBY, St Mark 34
GUNBY HALL Stable block 35
HANNAH, St Andrew 35
INGHAM School 36
LANGTON, St Peter and St Paul 36
LINCOLN - A cartoon history 5
LINCOLN - Cathedral : Medieval Table Manners 47
LINCOLN - Cathedral : circa 1092; 1120; 1160; 1250; 1280 28-29
LINCOLN - Cathedral : The Swineherd of Stow 41
LINCOLN - Cathedral and St Giles Hospital circa 1500 10
LINCOLN - Cathedral circa 1120 7
LINCOLN - Cathedral. The Galilee Porch circa 1720 44
LINCOLN - circa 1530 51
LINCOLN - St Mark's railway station in 1846 26-27
LINCOLN - St Swithin's church circa 1718 38
LINCOLN - St Swithin's church circa 1801 38
LINCOLN - St Swithin's church in 2000 39
LINCOLN - the Central railway station in 1851 33
LINCOLN - the High Bridge in the thirteenth century 24
LINCOLN - the High Street circa 1307 22
LINCOLNSHIRE - The Tale of Mable Thorpe 56
LINCOLNSHIRE - the Witham Valley before the Dissolution of the Religious Houses 4
LINCOLNSHIRE - Transport circa 1850 9
LOUTH, St James - circa 1515; 2002 37
LUSBY, St Peter 39
MABLETHORPE, St Mary's church circa 1900 40
MARTIN, St Michael 42
MOULTON CHAPEL, St James' church before 1886; the present church 42
NEW LEAKE, St Jude 43
OLD CLEE, Holy Trinity and St Mary 43
OXCOMBE, All Saints 45
RIGSBY, St James 45
RUCKLAND, St Olave 46
SAXBY, St Helen 46
SOUTHREY, St John the Divine 49
SPALDING, St Mary and St Nicholas 50
STAINFIELD, St Andrew 50
SURFLEET, St Laurence 51
SUTTON ON SEA, St Clement 52
ULCEBY, All Saints 53
WAINFLEET, All Saints 54
WAITHE, St Martin 54
WELL, St Margaret 55
WILKSBY, All Saints 55

Updated 05/01/2016 (acah)